TRE 101: Title & Scope

TRE 102: Purpose and Construction

TRE 103: Rulings on Evidence

TRE 104: Preliminary Questions

TRE 105: Limited Admissibility

TRE 106: Remainder of Writings or Recorded Statements

TRE 107: Texas Rule of Evidence of Optional Completeness

TRE 201: Judicial Notice of Adjudicative Facts

TRE 202: Determination of Law of Other States

TRE 203: Determination of the Laws of Foreign Countries

TRE 204: Determination of Texas City and County Ordinances…

TRE 401: Definition of “Relevant Evidence”

TRE 402: Relevant Evidence Generally Admissible…

TRE 403: Exclusion of Relevant Evidence on Special Grounds

TRE 404: Character Evidence Not Admissible to Prove…

TRE 405: Methods of Proving Character

TRE 406: Habit; Routine Practice

TRE 407: Subsequent Remedial Measures; Notification of Defect

TRE 408: Compromise and Offers to Compromise

TRE 409: Payment of Medical and Similar Expenses

TRE 410: Inadmissibility of Pleas and Related Statements

TRE 411: Liability Insurance

TRE 412: Evidence of Previous Sexual Conduct in Criminal Cases

TRE 412: Privileges Recognized Only as Provided

TRE 412: Required Reports Privileged by Statute

TRE 412: Lawyer-Client Privileges

TRE 412: Spousal Privileges

TRE 412: Communications to Members of the Clergy

TRE 412: Political Vote

TRE 412: Trade Secrets

TRE 412: Identity of Informer

TRE 501: Physician-Patient Privilege

TRE 502: Confidentiality of Mental Health Information in Civil Cases

TRE 503: Waiver of Privilege by Voluntary Disclosure

TRE 504: Privileged Matter Disclosed Under Compulsion

TRE 505: Comment on or Inference From a Privilege Claim; Instruction

TRE 601: Competency and Incompetency of Witnesses

TRE 602: Lack of Personal Knowledge

TRE 603: Oath or Affirmation

TRE 604: Interpreters

TRE 605: Competency of Judge as a Witness

TRE 606: Competency of Juror as a Witness

TRE 607: Who May Impeach a Witness

TRE 608: Evidence of Character and Conduct of a Witness

TRE 609: Impeachment by Evidence of Conviction of Crime

TRE 610: Religious Beliefs or Opinions

TRE 611: Examining Witnesses and Presenting Evidence

TRE 612: Writing Used to Refresh Memory

TRE 613: Prior Statements of Witnesses: Impeachment and Support

TRE 614: Excluding Witnesses

TRE 615: Producing a Witness’s Statement in Criminal Cases

TRE 701: Opinion Testimony by Lay Witnesses

TRE 702: Testimony by Experts

TRE 703: Bases of Opinion Testimony by Experts

TRE 704: Opinion of Ultimate Issue

TRE 705: Disclosure of Facts or Data Underlying Expert Opinion

TRE 706: Audit in Civil Cases

TRE 801: Definitions; Exclusions from Hearsay

TRE 802: Hearsay Rule

TRE 803: Hearsay Exceptions; Availability of Declarant Immaterial

TRE 804: Hearsay Exceptions; Declarant Unavailable

TRE 805: Hearsay Within Hearsay

TRE 806: Attacking and Supporting Credibility of Declarant

TRE 901: Authenticating or Identifying Evidence

TRE 902: Evidence That Is Self-Authenticating

TRE 903:Subscribing Witness’s Testimony

TRE 1001: Definitions That Apply to This Article

TRE 1002: Requirement of the Original

TRE 1003: Admissibility of Duplicates

TRE 1004: Admissibility of Other Evidence of Content

TRE 1005: Copies of Public Records to Prove Content

TRE 1006: Summaries to Prove Content

TRE 1007: Testimony or Statement of a Party to Prove Content

TRE 1008: Functions of Court and Jury

TRE 1009: Translating a Foreign Language Document


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Rule 503: Lawyer-Client Privileges

(a) Definitions. In this rule:

(1) A “client” is a person, public officer, or corporation, association, or other organization or entity—whether public or private—that:

(A) is rendered professional legal services by a lawyer; or

(B) consults a lawyer with a view to obtaining professional legal services from the lawyer.

(2) A “client’s representative” is:

(A) a person who has authority to obtain professional legal services for the client or to act for the client on the legal advice rendered; or

(B) any other person who, to facilitate the rendition of professional legal services to the client, makes or receives a confidential communication while acting in the scope of employment for the client.

(3) A “lawyer” is a person authorized, or who the client reasonably believes is authorized, to practice law in any state or nation.

(4) A “lawyer’s representative” is:

(A) one employed by the lawyer to assist in the rendition of professional legal services; or

(B) an accountant who is reasonably necessary for the lawyer’s rendition of professional legal services.

(5) A communication is “confidential” if not intended to be disclosed to third persons other than those:

(A) to whom disclosure is made to further the rendition of professional legal services to the client; or

(B) reasonably necessary to transmit the communication.

(b) Rules of Privilege.

(1) General Rule. A client has a privilege to refuse to disclose and to prevent any other person from disclosing confidential communications made to facilitate the rendition of professional legal services to the client:

(A) between the client or the client’s representative and the client’s lawyer or the lawyer’s representative;

(B) between the client’s lawyer and the lawyer’s representative;

(C) by the client, the client’s representative, the client’s lawyer, or the lawyer’s representative to a lawyer representing another party in a pending action or that lawyer’s representative, if the communications concern a matter of common interest in the pending action;

(D) between the client’s representatives or between the client and the client’s representative; or

(E) among lawyers and their representatives representing the same client.

(2) Special Rule in a Criminal Case. In a criminal case, a client has a privilege to prevent a lawyer or lawyer’s representative from disclosing any other fact that came to the knowledge of the lawyer or the lawyer’s representative by reason of the attorney–client relationship.

(c) Who May Claim. The privilege may be claimed by:

(1) the client;

(2) the client’s guardian or conservator;

(3) a deceased client’s personal representative; or

(4) the successor, trustee, or similar representative of a corporation, association, or other organization or entity—whether or not in existence.

The person who was the client’s lawyer or the lawyer’s representative when the communication was made may claim the privilege on the client’s behalf—and is presumed to have authority to do so.

(d) Exceptions. This privilege does not apply:

(1) Furtherance of Crime or Fraud. If the lawyer’s services were sought or obtained to enable or aid anyone to commit or plan to commit what the client knew or reasonably should have known to be a crime or fraud.

(2) Claimants Through Same Deceased Client. If the communication is relevant to an issue between parties claiming through the same deceased client.

(3) Breach of Duty By a Lawyer or Client. If the communication is relevant to an issue of breach of duty by a lawyer to the client or by a client to the lawyer.

(4) Document Attested By a Lawyer. If the communication is relevant to an issue concerning an attested document to which the lawyer is an attesting witness.

(5) Joint Clients. If the communication:

(A) is offered in an action between clients who retained or consulted a lawyer in common;

(B) was made by any of the clients to the lawyer; and

(C) is relevant to a matter of common interest between the clients.

Notes and Comments

Comment to 1998 change: The addition of subsection (a)(2)(B) adopts a subject matter test for the privilege of an entity, in place of the control group test previously used. See National Tank Co. v. Brotherton, 851 S.W.2d 193, 197-198 (Tex. 1993).